History of Computers



Computers we use today do not necessarily appear out of nowhere but through a long process in evolution. Happenings advent of computers may be viewed in a historical flashback from the use of Abacus – are found in Babylon (Iraq) about 5000 years ago – as the first manual calculation tools, both in the scope of the school and among traders, at the time. At a later period have found the means calculating the mechanical type of the Pascaline invented by Blaine Pascal in 1642, Arithometer by Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar in 1820, Babbage’s Folly by Charles Babbage in 1822, and Hollerith by Herman Hollerith in of 1889. All of which still form the machine completely without electricity. The size and complexity of its structure based on the calculations performed the operation. It was only in 1940, a new era started since the invention of the computer electrically electrical computer system to apply Boolean algebra.

Development of computer technology that is described below in the top four generations based on the components it uses, ranging from the size of “big” until the micro in line also with the complexity of its components.

The First Generation
This is an era when computers giants, such as the Z3, Colossus, ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC I. Characteristics of the computer at this age is characterized by its size almost as big as the bedroom, using a vacuum tube with vast amounts to store and process the orders or instructions, consuming thousands of watts of electrical power, using machine language and can only be used by trained persons. So, ordinary people will not be able to use it so that this kind of computer has not been commercialized to the public. Only large corporations, educational institutions and government agencies that use it.

Second Generation
This era began with the use of transistors and diodes as a replacement of the vacuum tube so the size smaller than its predecessor generation. Another discovery is the use of magnetic core memory that hold data, resulting in faster data processing, and machine language has been replaced by assembly language (Fortran and Cobol) that makes it easy to operate. Some examples of the computer at this time, the Stretch, LARC, DEC PDP-8, IBM 1401, IBM 7090 and IBM 7094.

Third Generation
The new era of communication began to set foot on the computer this momentum. Most of the big companies to apply on-line system using a remote terminal in the use of computers (read: on-line). These technologies must be supported by increasing computer performance in terms of both hardware and software usage. New discoveries in the field of hardware acted with the emergence of IC (Integrated Circuit) in computer components. Because of its advantages in bringing together the various components in a single chip so that the computer at that time computers became ever smaller size without degrading the performance of the resulting, even further improving its performance. On the software, programming techniques plural (Multi Programming) was developed so that more and adding to existing programming languages. Cray-1, UNIVAC 90/30 and IBM 360 computers are examples of this generation.

Fourth Generation
Along with the speed of the development of computers as a means of data processing is increasing rapidly, especially in this generation. The growing speed is inversely proportional to the smaller size supported by the larger memory capacity. The price is getting cheaper due to its components have been manufactured and sold eg. In this period various IC united into a single unit forming a component called the VLSI (Very Large Scale IC). Use of the software began to be applied easily and thrive on home computers, such as word processing and spreadsheets. Even more extensive internet network which was formerly only enjoyed by the elite groups can now be used also by the common people.

The use of microprocessors is now an absolute no longer used only on computers but has been applied to other electronic products, such as televisions and microwave. See the development of the computer world is a very high rate of growth from the beginning to the present generation can we predict how the next generation of computer characteristics.

Possibly, the computer will not have to continue to be dictated by man but he was able to do everything yourself. Virtually the ability to have human like intelligence. Such capabilities (or Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence) is now actively investigated by the developed countries like Japan and the United States.

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