Microscope (Greek: micros = small , scopein = see) is a tool to see objects that are too small to see with the eyes roughly. The study of small objects by using this tool is called microscopy, and microscopic word means very small, not easily visible to the eye.

The types of microscopes

Digital microscope that can be connected to the computer
The most common type of microscope, and the first created, is the optical microscope. This microscope is an optical instrument consisting of one or more lenses that produce an enlarged image of an object placed in the focal area of the lens.

Based on the light source, a microscope is divided into two, namely, light microscopy and electron microscopy. Light microscope itself subdivided into two major groups, based on observations of activities and complexity of the activities carried out observations. Under the act of observation, light microscopy can be divided into dissection microscope to observe the surface of the monocular and binocular microscope and to observe the inside of the cell. Monocular microscope is a microscope that has only one eyepiece and binocular eyepiece has a 2. Based on the observation that the complexity of the activities carried out, a microscope is divided into two parts, namely a simple microscope (which is commonly used student) and research microscope (dark-field microscopy, fluorescence, phase contrast, Nomarski DIC, and konfokal).

Structure of the microscope

There are two main sections which are generally set the microscope, namely:

Optical section, which consisted of condensers, the objective lens and eyepiece.

Non-optical parts, consisting of leg and arm of the microscope, the diaphragm, the object table, smooth and rough player, clamp glass objects and light sources.


Light and electron microscopy goal is to produce images of objects larger in microscope. This enlargement depends on all factors, including the second focal point of the lens (objective f1 and f2 ocular, the length of the tubules or distance (t) the objective lens of the eyepiece and the third is a normal eye visibility (sn).

Formula:  \ {Vm} =  \frac { t.sn }{f_1.f_2}
The nature of the shadow

Both the objective and eyepiece lenses are both convex lens. Broadly speaking, the objective lens produces an image that has the temporary nature of the virtual, inverted, and enlarged to the position of the object at first, then a further determine the nature of the final image is the ocular lens. In the light microscope, the final image has the same properties as a temporary shadow, false, inverted, and more enlarged. In the electron microscope the final image has the same properties as the real object image, parallel, and enlarged. If someone is using a light microscope put the letter A under a microscope, then he saw the letter A is inverted and enlarged.

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