Aircraft heavier than air was first flown by the Wright Brothers (Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright) using its own aircraft design called the Flyer, which was launched in 1903 in the United States. In addition to the Wright brothers, there were several other aircraft inventor who invented airplanes, among others, Samuel F Cody to perform an action on the ground Fanborough, England in 1910. After the Wright era, many aircraft are modified both in design, shape and aircraft engines to meet air transportation needs.
The basic principle of how an aircraft to air the same for all aircraft, both aircraft and aircraft dragonflies such as the Airbus A380 super jumbo.
That affect aircraft flying under on the style – a style about it that is aerodynamic, lift (elevator), drag (drag), gravity (gravity), and thrust (trust).
The driving force of the next plane obtained from the spinning propeller on the end of the plane. While the friction drag is the aircraft with the wind. Because the airplane has a mass, then the force of gravity will bring the plane down, to lift that is needed. Lift force is generated from an airplane wing.
Wing aircraft is a key player for mengkat fuselage. Wing cross-section is usually called the “aerofoil” During the flight the air flows up and down the wing. Megalir air above the wing faster than the air flowing under the wing, so the air pressure above the lower plane.
At the same time been turned down air below the wing, causing lift (air is pushed down the wing will push up the action-reaction force).
The driving force of the wing and lower air pressure above the wing is what is needed to fly the aircraft in the air.
There are several factors that caused the plane to fly, including:
An airplane requires lift or elevator is needed to fly. Lift is generated by the surface of a wing (wing) shaped airfoil.
Lift force due to air flow passing over the top and bottom around the airfoil. At the time of flight, the air passing over the top of the airfoil will have a greater speed than the speed of air flow through the bottom of the airfoil. So, the bottom surface of the airfoil will have a greater pressure than the upper surface. The difference in pressure at the top and bottom is what causes the lift force or lift on the wing. Because of the pressure-pressure area moving from large to small pressure to the area, the pressure on the lower surface will move towards the top of the airfoil to create lift on the wing. Lift force that makes the aircraft can fly and float freely in the air.
To move forward (both on land and in the air), the aircraft needs thrust generated by the driving force is commonly called by the engine (engine). Thrust will be produced by the engine is commonly called the thrust.
There are several types of aircraft engines, including:
Piston engine or commonly called a piston engine, an engine that uses piston (plunger) as the driving force. Piston that moves up and down on the plug to the crankshaft through a connecting rod to rotate the propeller or propellers. The piston can move up and down because of a combustion of the fuel-air mixture (fuel) in the combustion chamber (combustion chamber). Combustion in the combustion chamber which produces hot gas expansion can move the piston moves up and down.
Aircraft that use piston engines generally use as a driving force for the propeller thrust produce. Sectional shape of the propeller itself like the wing, which is also shaped airfoil. So the next time it will produce a rotating propeller thrust or thrust so the plane can move forward. Aircraft with piston engines is a type of light aircraft or commonly called a light aircraft. This aircraft has a cruising range of small and flying height is not too high.
Basically, the working principle of all the same engine aircraft. Which harness the energy of combustion of the air-fuel mixture that produces gas expansion that occurs in the combustion chamber cc (combustion chamber).
Named turbojet engine because this engine uses a turbine in power, and the mean jet spray / jet. That burst of combustion products in the cc out of the turbine and gas turbine, compressor and turbine rotate and drive the other engine components.
The working principle of the turboprop engines with the working process of the turbojet engine. What distinguishes it is contained in the engine propeller. Propeller turbine and compressor connected through a shaft.
Together with turboprop, turbofan working principle with turbojet engines. The difference is in the turbofan engine fan in front of the compressor there. Fan works to suck air into the compressor.
The working principle of the turboshaft engine is similar deng turbojet engine. Engine is in use on helicopters. In the turboshaft engine, there is a shaft which is connected to the turbine. It connects to the main shaft or the rotor blades on helicopters. The helicopter rotor airfoil-shaped cross section having.
Field Control (Flight Control Surface)
To move the plane (turning, diving, and rolling or turning), a pilot requires a control area or control surface.
Primary control surface
Primary control surface or the main control area is the area of the control plane that can regulate the movement of aircraft while flying in the air.
Aileron, elevator, and rudder is the main control area on the plane.
1). Aileron is located on the wing, used aircraft at the time of rolling (turning) in the air and its movement is on the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, the ailerons are controlled using the control stick is in the cockpit.
2). Elevators are located on the tail (empenage) or the horizontal stabilizer, used aircraft for piching (nod) and lateral movement on the axis of the aircraft, the elevator is controlled by using the control stick in the cockpit room.
3). Rudder is located in the tail section precisely in the vertical stabilizer, the aircraft used to perform yawing (turning) motion in the air and on the vertical axis of the aircraft, the rudder is controlled by using the rudder pedals located on cockpit space.